What is transformer? Types of transformer [2021]


Let me tell you about the power supply that takes place in our homes. Now this power supply is first starting from the power plant. At the power plant, electricity is produced at a particular voltage. Now this electricity has to travel long distances because the power plant is usually situated very far away from cities. (What is transformer? Types of transformer)

Step down transformer, Types of transformer

Step down transformer, Types of transformer
Step down transformer, Types of transformer

So in order to travel these long distances, the voltage will have to be increased for transportation. Now this increase of voltage takes place at a particular point.

At this point, the voltage is increased to a point in the order of kilowatts that is a very very high voltage, few thousands of kilo-volts.

Now from this point, it reaches a distribution line. Now at this distribution line or the distribution station, it ensures that this electricity travels to different parts of the city.

Now in the city, there are again various sections. Now before this electricity reaches our homes, there is another point where the voltage will have to be decreased.

Why, because if this high voltage were to be supplied directly to our homes it would not only cause fatalities, it would also damage any appliance connected to this high-voltage. So at this point, the voltage is reduced.

Now when the voltage is reduced from here, the electricity goes to the distribution lines for a particular neighborhood and from there the electricity reaches our homes at this decreased voltage.

So in India, this decreased voltage has a fixed value. The main supply is about 220 volts in India. So we can say that 220 volts is the voltage at which we get electricity.

Now you might be wondering that how this 220 volts can run all appliances at our homes. Let us say for example a doorbell.

A doorbell needs no more than six volts, however, as you might be knowing this doorbell runs on the same electricity on which certain other appliances run. Let’s say a television. Now a television requires several thousand volts.

Now we see there a doorbell requiring 6 volts and a television requiring several thousand volts both are running on a main supply of 220 volts but how is it possible? And not only those appliances certain other appliances, let’s say like a hair dryer or a mobile charger.

All these appliances have different operational voltages, so how is it that all these appliances can be run at the same voltage of 220 volts that we get in our mains? Let us find out.  In order to do this, an instrument known as the transformer is used.

What is the purpose of a transformer?

The basic purpose of a transformer is that an EMF of an alternating current can be increased or decreased or in other words if we have a certain EMF of an alternating current it means that EMF can either be increased with the help of the transformer or decreased. Notice that it is important to remember that it is only the EMF of an alternating current that can be changed.


So this is the basic construction of a transformer as you can see we have a core which contains a primary side and a secondary side. Now on the primary side, a wire is wound around the core as you can see. Across this the primary voltage, or the voltage that needs to be changed to a desired value, is applied.

And on the opposite side of the core we have this secondary side. Now on the secondary side also the wire is wound and across it we obtain the secondary voltage or the desired voltage that we require from the primary voltage.


Different explicit electrical application plans require an assortment of transformer types. In spite of the fact that they all offer the essential trademark transformer standards, they are modified in development or electrical properties for certain establishment necessities or circuit conditions.

In electric force transmission, transformers permit transmission of electric force at high voltages, which lessens the misfortune because of warming of the wires.

This permits producing plants to be found monetarily a ways off from electrical consumers. [51] All however a minuscule portion of the world’s electrical force has gone through a progression of transformers when it comes to the consumer.[22]

In numerous electronic gadgets, a transformer is utilized to change over voltage from the conveyance wiring to helpful qualities for the circuit necessities, either straightforwardly at the electrical cable recurrence or through a switch-mode power gracefully.

Sign and sound transformers are utilized to couple phases of enhancers and to coordinate gadgets, for example, receivers and stereos to the contribution of intensifiers.

Sound transformers permitted phone circuits to carry on a two-path discussion over a solitary pair of wires.

A balun transformer changes over a sign that is referenced to ground to a sign that has adjusted voltages to ground, for example, between outer links and interior circuits. Detachment transformers forestall spillage of current into the auxiliary circuit and are utilized in clinical gear and at building destinations.

Resounding transformers are utilized for coupling between phases of radio recipients, or in high-voltage Tesla curls.

Transformer Configurations:

Step down transformer, Types of transformer
Step down transformer, Types of transformer

There are various arrangements for both single-stage and three-stage frameworks. Single-stage Power – Single-phage transformers are frequently used to flexibly control for private lighting, container, cooling, and warming needs.

Single-phage transformers can be made much increasingly flexible by having both the essential winding and optional twisting made in two equivalent parts.

The two pieces of either winding would then be able to be reconnected in arrangement or equal setups.

Three-stage Power – Power might be provided through a three-stage circuit containing transformers in which a lot of three single-stage transformers is utilized, or on three-stage transformer is utilized.

At the point when a lot of intensity is associated with the change of three-phage power, it is increasingly prudent to utilize a three-stage transformer. The one of a kind course of action of the windings and center spares a great deal of iron.

Delta and Wye Defined – There are two association arrangements for three-stage power: Delta and Wye. Delta and Wye are Greek letters that speak to the manner in which the conductors on the transformers are arranged.

In a delta association, the three conductors are associated start to finish in a triangle or delta shape. For a wye, all the conductors transmit from the inside, which means they are associated at one normal point.

Three-stage Transformers – Three-stage transformers have six winding; three essential and three auxiliary. The six winding’s are associated by the maker as either delta or wye. As recently expressed.

The essential windings and auxiliary windings may each be associated in a delta or wye design. They don’t need to be associated in a similar setup in a similar transformer. The genuine association designs utilized rely on the application.

Ac transformer: Types of transformer

An AC transformer is an electrical gadget that is utilized to change the voltage in rotating flow (AC) electrical circuits.

One of the incredible favorable circumstances of AC over DC for electric-power dispersion is that it is a lot simpler to step voltage step here and there with AC than with DC.

For significant distance power transmission it is alluring to use as high a voltage and as little a current as could reasonably be expected; this decreases R*I2 misfortunes in the transmission lines, and littler wires can be utilized, saving money on material expenses.

What is a Step Down Transformer?

Step down transformer, Types of transformer
Step down transformer, Types of transformer

A stage down transformer changes over the high voltage (HV) and low current from the essential side of the transformer to the low voltage (LV) and high current incentive on the optional side of the transformer.

A transformer is a sort of static electrical gear that changes electrical vitality (from essential side windings) to attractive vitality (in transformer attractive center) and again to the electrical vitality (on the optional transformer side). A stape-down transformer has a wide assortment of utilizations in electrical frameworks and transmission lines.

With regards to the activity voltage, the progression up transformer application can be generally isolated into two gatherings: LV (voltages up to 1 kV) and HV application (voltages over 1 kV).

Similarly as transformers can step down the voltage – going from a higher essential side voltage to a lower auxiliary side voltage – they can likewise step up the voltage, going from a lower essential side voltage to a higher optional side voltage. These are known as a stape up transformer.

The first LV application alludes to the transformers in electronic gadgets. Providing the electronic circuits requires a low voltage esteem (for example 5V, even lower esteems these days).

A stage down transformer is utilized to give this low voltage esteem which is appropriate for hardware providing. It changes home voltage (230/120 V) from essential to a low voltage on the auxiliary side which is utilized for electronic providing.

On the off chance that electronic gadgets are intended to have higher ostensible force, transformers with high working recurrence are utilized (kHz-s).

The transformers with higher ostensible force worth and 50/60 Hz ostensible recurrence would be excessively enormous and substantial. Additionally, the everyday utilized battery chargers utilize the progression down transformer in its structure.

Step  Down Transformer Applications:

The step-down transformers have a significant capacity in a force framework. They bring down the voltage level and adjust it to vitality buyers. It is acted in a few stages portrayed underneath:

A significant distance vitality transmission framework ought to have a voltage level as high as could be expected under the circumstances. With high voltage and low current, the transmission power loss will be altogether diminished.

A force framework is structured that must be associated with the transmission framework with the diverse voltage levels. step down transformers are utilized in the interconnection of transmission frameworks with various voltage levels. They decline voltage level from high to bring down worth (for example 765/220 kV, 410/220 kV, 220/110 kV).

These transformers are gigantic and have high ostensible force (even 1000 MVA). For this situation, when the transformer turns proportion isn’t high the autotransformers are generally introduced.

The following voltage level change step is adjusting the transmission voltage to the dissemination level. The trademark voltage proportions, for this situation, are 220/20 kV, 110/20 kV (additionally the LV optional voltages 35 kV and 10 kV can be found).

The ostensible intensity of those transformers is up to 60 MVA (typically 20 MVA). The on-load tap changer is quite often introduced in these transformers.Types of transformer.

Voltage guideline is the fundamental capacity of tap changer. In the USA the tap changer depends on the LV side, and in the remainder of the world generally on the HV transformer side.

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The last voltage change step is adjusting the voltage to the home voltage level (ROOT3 230V OR ROOT3 120 V)

These transformers are known as little conveyance transformers with ostensible catalyst to 5 MVA (for the most part under 1 MVA) and with ostensible voltage esteems 35, 20, 10 kV on HV side and 400/200 V on LV side.

It is observable that those transformers have a  high turns proportion. They for the most part have de-empowered tap changer with 5 tap position (+/ – 2 tap position) and don’t have on-load tap changer.

What is a Step Up Transformer?

Step down transformer, Types of transformer
Step down transformer, Types of transformer

A stage up transformer changes over the low voltage (LV) and high current from the primary side of the transformer to the high voltage (HV) and low current on the secondary side of the transformer.

A transformer is static electrical hardware which changes electrical energy (from essential side windings) to the attractive vitality (in transformer attractive center) and again to the electrical vitality (on the auxiliary transformer side).

A stage up transformer has a wide assortment of uses in electrical frameworks and transmission lines.

The working recurrence and ostensible force are around equivalent on the essential and optional transformer sides in light of the fact that the transformer is an extremely effective bit of hardware – while the voltage and current qualities are typically unique.

Step down transformer, Types of transformer

A transformer gives galvanic separation in the electrical framework. Because of these two primary highlights, the transformer is the most significant piece of the electrical framework and gives affordable and dependable transmission and dispersion of electrical vitality.

The transformer can move vitality in the two headings, from HV to LV side just as contrarily. That is the motivation behind why it can fill in as a voltage step-up or step-down transformer.

Both transformer types have a similar structure and development. Hypothetically, we can work any transformer as venture up just as venture down sort. It just relies upon the vitality streaming course.

The HV windings contain a colossal number of turns contrasted and the LV windings. A LV winding wire has a greater cross-area than HV wire on account of the higher current incentive on the LV side. For the most part, we place the LV windings near the transformer center, and over them, we wound the HV windings.

Transformer turns proportion is roughly corresponding to the voltage proportion:


Where U1,2 are voltages and N1,2 are the turns numbers on HV and LV side). The primary side of a stage up transformer has few turns (LV side) while the secondary side has countless turns (HV side).

That implies vitality streams from the LV to HV side. The most significant utilization of venture up transformer is a generator step-up (GSU) transformer utilized in all creating plants.

Those transformers for the most part have huge turns proportion esteems. The voltage esteem created in vitality age is expanded and arranged for the significant distance vitality transmission.

The vitality created in producing plant is at low voltage and high current qualities. Contingent upon the creating plant type, the GSU transformer has an ostensible essential voltage esteem from 6 up to 20 kV.

The ostensible voltage estimation of the GSU auxiliary side can be 110 kV, 220 kV, 410 kV relying upon vitality transmission framework associated with the GSU optional side. The current incentive on the essential GSU side is generally high and relying upon the ostensible transformer force can reach even 30000 A.

This current worth isn’t useful for vitality transmission and needs to diminish due to the transmission power misfortunes (R × I2). Significant distance vitality transmission would not be conceivable. Other than the GSU transformer additionally makes galvanic disconnection between the generator and electrical system.

STEP Up Transformer Applications:

A little  SYEP up transformer can be utilized in electronic and electrical gadgets where the voltage boosting is required. In any case, these days in current electronic gadgets, power electronic circuits are all the more every now and again utilized in view of weight and measurement.

As we told effectively, goliath power step-up transformer is utilized as a producing step-up transformer for stepping up the created capacity to a higher voltage level for proficient transmission purposes.

Dc transformer:

Step down transformer, Types of transformer

The DC Transformer is a superb innovation that ought to have occurred around thirty years back, when electronic exchanging by mosfet got proficient, reduced and modest. A DC transformer is created by including various overdriven mosfets to an AC Transformer.

DC transformers will be extremely helpful in the developing battery driven DC world. They will permit cell adjusting for sun oriented cells and most any sort of electrochemical cells. In sun oriented photoelectric exhibits, the diodes will vanish, and fractional concealing will no longer reason lopsided vitality misfortune.

DC engines, of any voltage, will be driven from DC cells of any voltage, with just a DC Transformer interface.

A solitary shrewd charger for lead corrosive batteries, can charge 6V, 12V, and additionally 24V batteries, simultaneously, regardless of whether the batteries are associated with their vehicle, or different burdens, and paying little mind to their condition of charge, at the association.

DC – DC Converter Transformers are utilized in step up or step-down converters. These transformers can be utilized in self-immersed or square wave driven applications and have input voltage scopes of 5V, 12V, 24V, and 48V and yield Voltage up to 300 VDC.

The force rating is up to 7.5 W for surface mount and up to 40W for through gap transformers. The through gap variant of the transformer is attractively protected. Pico Electronics’ DC – DC Converter Transformers are operational over the temperature run from – 55C to +105C. All transformers are MIL – PRF – 27 Grade 5 Class S.

These ultra-scaled down transformers are made for solidness while keeping up their electrical attributes. Hand crafts are accessible to increment or decline optional voltages just as a particular info voltages. Pico Electronics is an endorsed QPL source.

Difference between ac and dc:

Step down transformer, Types of transformer

let’s talk about the difference between AC and DC. The letters DC stand for Direct Current and it generally means the electrons flow in a single direction. AC stands for alternating current and it means that the flow of electrons change. Now, this is where things can start to get a little confusing.

This is an AC voltage source so it’s both AC and voltage. How can voltage and current be the same? Well it turns out we tend to use AC and DC abbreviations for voltage, as well as, current. So in other words AC voltage, or current, is voltage, or current, that changes.

DC voltage, or current, is voltage, or current, that is steady. Okay, so let’s take a little bit closer look at these two starting with DC Check out this AA, or LR6, battery. It provides 1.5 volts.

This example circuit is going to be a DC motor like you might find in a toy car. When we insert the battery into the circuit, current begins to flow in a single direction, turning the motor.

If we drew a graph, where the vertical axis is voltage and the horizontal axis is time, we can see that the voltage at this point stays constant. Now, since this is a battery, eventually, it’s going to run out energy; and its output voltage will drop.

So we know that the voltage will change over time, but the polarity will stay the same. So what is polarity? Well polarity defines the positive direction and for a battery the positive voltage is created from the positive terminal.

So… what would happen if we turn this battery around? Well, that reverses the polarity which means the current will flow in the opposite direction as before, causing our motor to spin in the opposite direction.

Okay, so let’s move on to AC and in this case we’re going to use a light bulb and a North-American AC socket, because well, I live in North America! Notice how the circuit behaves when we turn the switch on. Let’s break down what we’re seeing by using the voltage graph again.

Notice how the current is flowing in one direction and as voltage increases the light bulb gets brighter . Once the voltage reaches its peak current flow stays the same but the voltage begins to drop and the light bulb gets dimmer.

Once we reach zero volts, the voltages polarity changes causing current to flow in the opposite direction, and again as the voltage gets closer to its peak the bulb gets brighter and then dims back down. Okay we needed to define a couple of things. First,  is the change from start to finish is called a cycle.

The rate at which the cycle repeats is frequency.  Now the frequency is measured using the unit “Hertz,” which means cycles per second. Different parts of the world use different frequencies for their AC systems and it can either be 50 or 60 Hertz. What this means is in one second the cycle repeat itself at least 50 times.

Believe it, or not, incandescent bulbs are actually flashing over 50 times per second! Now it turns out, that this rate is so fast that our slow human eyes  sees it as constant light! In summary, while the abbreviations for AC and DC include the word “current,”  they can be used to describe different types of voltage and current. DC voltages do not fluctuate while DC current flows in one direction AC voltages change overtime and the current flow can alternate direction.

If you have any questions then ask me in comment section, and share this article with your friends. thank you.


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